Josef Mengele, camp doctor at Auschwitz. Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met. In violation of the provisions of the Hague Convention, industrial firms in the Netherlands, France, and Belgium were put to work producing war materiel for Germany. Famine was experienced in many occupied countries. In addition to calling for the rapid construction of steel mills, synthetic rubber plants, and other factories, Göring instituted wage and price controls and restricted the issuance of stock dividends. German casualties Further information: World War II casualties and German casualties in World War II German refugees in Bedburg, near Kleve, 19 February 1945 Estimates of the total German war dead range from.5.9 million persons.
In addition to eliminating Jews, the Nazis planned to reduce the population of the conquered territories by 30 million people through starvation in an action called the Hunger Plan. Inside the Third Reich. The Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture) was organised under the control of the Propaganda Ministry in September 1933. Nazi plunder included private and public art collections, artefacts, precious metals, books, and personal possessions. When the notes were presented for payment, the Reichsbank printed money. Invasion of the Soviet Union On, contravening the MolotovRibbentrop Pact,.5 million Axis troops attacked the Soviet Union. Between twelve and fourteen million ethnic Germans fled or were expelled from central, eastern, and southeastern Europe to Germany. The Moscow offensive, which resumed in October 1941, ended disastrously in December. Students were required to watch all films prepared by the school division of the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Conquered areas of Belgium and France were placed under control of the Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France.
Any profits in excess of that amount would be turned over to the Reich. In his role as Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan, Hermann Göring demanded increased shipments of grain from France and fish from Norway. By early 1934, the focus shifted towards rearmament. Geschichte der deutschen Bevolkerung seit 1815 (in German). Hitler was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reich President and Goebbels as Reich Chancellor. For example, Germany refused to share their formula for synthetic oil from coal until late in the war. Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. Austria and Czechoslovakia Main articles: Anschluss and German occupation of Czechoslovakia Further information: Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Top) Hitler proclaims the Anschluss on the Heldenplatz, Vienna, (Bottom) Ethnic Germans use the Nazi salute to greet German soldiers as they enter Saaz, 1938 In February. Retrieved Stein, George (2002) 1966.
These laws initially prohibited sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and Jews and were later extended to include "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring". New York: Vintage Books. The Nazis exploited other conquered nations in a similar way. Speer improved production by centralising planning and control, reducing production of consumer goods, and using forced labour and slavery. Wehrmacht troops also participated directly in the Holocaust by shooting civilians or committing genocide under the guise of anti-partisan operations. Hundreds more pastors were arrested. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings.
Lack of funding for salaries led to many teachers leaving the profession. This resulted in female enrolment in secondary schools dropping from 437,000 in 1926 to 205,000 in 1937. Heinemann, Isabel; Oberkrome, Willi; Schleiermacher, Sabine; Wagner, Patrick (2006). Hitler's belief that abstract, Dadaist, expressionist and modern art were decadent became the basis for policy. Fascist Italy objected to German claims in the Balkans and on Austria, which Benito Mussolini considered to be in Italy's sphere of influence. Poor living conditions led to high rates of sickness, injury, and death, as well as sabotage and criminal activity. Retrieved Kitchen, Martin (2006).
The Saarland, which had been placed under League of Nations supervision for 15 years at the end of World War I, voted in January 1935 to become part of Germany. This pause provided the Red Army with an opportunity to mobilise fresh reserves. Other sects of Christianity were also targeted, with Chief of the nsdap Chancellery Martin Bormann publicly proclaiming in 1941, "National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable." Shirer writes that opposition to Christianity within nsdap leadership was so pronounced that, "the Nazi regime intended to eventually destroy. Das Bundesarchiv (in German). After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, and capitulated in May 1945.